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A Beginners Guide to ZK (Zero Knowledge) Ecosystem

Key Takeaways
  • Zero-Knowledge Proofs enhance privacy, security, and efficiency in blockchain technology, with two fundamental types: Interactive and Non-Interactive ZKP.
  • Advantages of ZKPs: Simplified cryptography, increased user privacy, and streamlined transactions on the blockchain, reducing data storage concerns.
  • Zero-Knowledge Rollup, a layer-2 scaling solution, addresses blockchain scalability issues by moving computation off-chain.
25-Oct-2023 Sudeep Saxena
A Beginners Guide to ZK (Zero Knowledge) Ecosystem

All you need to know about Zero Knowledge Proof

With the advancement in technology, the need for data privacy and security is growing simultaneously. We can agree with the fact that the data can be used as proof to reveal our identity but while doing so it does spill out a lot more information. But do you know what Zero Knowledge Proof is? If we talk in layman's terms, it mainly focuses on verifying the proof without revealing much information.

Sounds interesting and easy right?  Let's dip in deeper to get an insight into what ZK proof is all about. 

What are Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs)? 

It is a cryptographic protocol that enables one person referred to as a prover to convince another person who is referred to as a verifier that a particular claim is true without disclosing any details about the claim itself. And do you know that over the years, advancements in zero-knowledge proofs have led to their widespread adoption in various real-world applications?

Zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) come with three built-in properties:

  1. Completeness: The completeness property ensures that a transaction is verified, allowing the prover to proceed with it. When the transaction statement is true, the verifier can authorize the prover to proceed with their requested input.

  2. Soundness: The soundness property ensures that a transaction is accurate and not fraudulent. This means that if the transaction is wrong, the verifier cannot be convinced, and the prover's input request cannot be granted.

  3. Zero-knowledge: The verifier cannot have any information except whether the current statement is true or false. Other private information from different parties remains hidden.

Types of Zero Knowledge Proofs

If we talk about the two fundamental types of ZK Proofs then they are Interactive and Non-Interactive ZKP.

  1. Interactive ZKP: The actions involved in these concepts are based on mathematical probability. In interactive ZKP, the prover has to convince each verifier separately, and this requires a series of actions to prove a specific fact.

  2. Non-Interactive ZKP: It does not require an interactive process between the prover and verifier. In this context, the prover generates proof to the verifier and the proof can be verified by the verifier only once at any time.

Advantages of Zero Knowledge

  1. Simple – The best advantage of zero-knowledge cryptography is that it does not involve any complex encryption method and is extremely easy. 

  2. Privacy– Increases the privacy of users as they do not need to reveal any sort of information in the public blockchain. 

  3. Transactions ─ This is one of the best advantages of ZKPs as it refers to the shortening of transactions on the blockchain. As a result, users don't need to stress about data storage for identity and compatibility with various asset kinds as a result.

Now that we've gained an understanding of what ZK Proofs are, their types, and their advantages, let's take a closer look and concentrate on the flip side which is the disadvantage of ZK Proofs.

Limitations of Zero-Knowledge Proofs

ZK-proofs provide privacy and security benefits, but on the other hand, it can be computationally intensive and complex to implement. 

  1. Accuracy: There is no absolute certainty that the generated values are true, but there is a high probability that they are.

  2. Imperfect: The messages delivered to the verifier/prover might be destroyed or modified.

  3. Restricted: If the person who started a transaction forgets their information, all the data connected to it is gone.

  4. Large Computing Power: Do you know that there are around 2000 computations per ZKP transaction that each require a certain amount of time to process.

Bit more about ZK Rollup

We know that blockchain network scalability has always been difficult to facilitate widespread adoption. Layer 1 demand for block space increased, resulting in high transaction prices and network congestion. And now the layer-2 scaling solution is called “zero-knowledge rollup” that assists in resolving these issues by moving computation and state storage off-chain. Interestingly there are some companies which have already incorporated ZK. 


It is the first cryptocurrency use case and application of ZKP in the crypto world. In addition,  Zcash is the first zero knowledge proof cryptocurrency to deploy the technology. It uses SNARK-powered protocols for complete anonymity in DeFi.


It stands out as a leading Ethereum layer 2 blockchain employing zero-knowledge technology. It operates as a zero-knowledge rollup, that scales Ethereum by making transactions faster and cheaper.  Additionally, Polygon has also introduced a zero-knowledge Ethereum Virtual Machine (zkEVM). 


Ethereum gas fees rise due to transactions vying for block space. Scroll introduced zero-knowledge computational methods to increase block space and prevent transaction congestion. Besides being a rollup, Scroll also features its native zkEVM infrastructure.

Earlier in a ETHSeoul, Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin said that in his

opinion is that in the longer term, ZK-Rollups are eventually going to beat Optimistic Rollups because they have these fundamental advantages like “you don't need to have a seven-day withdrawal period”. He added that“In more than 10 years from now or even more, I expect the Rollups to basically be all ZK.”

Also Read: Will Polygon re-live the Same Magic with its Version 2?

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